Research

Imagine Speech is committed to designing games based on researched and evidenced based practices. Please review the research bibliography below to find more information. Imagine Speech games employ these researched and proven practices to help children develop communication.

Computer
Visual Learning
Motivation
Positive Reinforcement and Positive Feedback and Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
Structured Learning Activities and ABA
Expansions
Word Stress and Prosody

Computer
Research proves that children with special needs including autism spectrum disorders learn vocabulary, language, reading, and social skills using the computer. Computer programs with features such as engaging object movement and interesting sounds increase attention, motivation, and learning in children who have autism. In addition, research demonstrates that children with autism spectrum disorders can transfer skills learned from the computer to everyday environments.

Bosseler, A., Massaro, D. W. (2003). Development and evaluation of a computer-animated tutor for vocabulary and language learning in children with autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 33(6), 653-672.

Moore, M., and Calvert, S. (2000). Brief report: vocabulary acquisition for children with autism: teacher or computer instruction. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 30, 359-362.

Segers, E., Nooijen, M., and de Moor, J. (2006). Computer vocabulary training in kindergarten children with special needs. International Journal of Rehabilitiaton Research, 29(4), 343-345.

Silver, M., and Oakes, P. (2001). Evaluation of a new computer intervention to teach people with autism or Asperger syndrome to recoginize and predict emotions in others. Autism, 5(3), 299-316.

Williams, C., Wright, B., and Callaghan, G. (2002). Do children with autism learn to read more readily by computer assisted instruction or traditional book methods? A pilot study. Autism, 6(1), 71-91.

 

Visual Learning
Research shows that many children without specialized needs and the majority of children with autism spectrum disorders are visual learners. Imagine Speech games are visually based. Visual cues, prompts, and symbols teach concepts and foster success throughout games. In combination with visual cues, Imagine Speech games have visual positive reinforcement and animated rewards.

In addition, Imagine Speech uses multi-modality learning, so that children have opportunities to learn through reading and visual, auditory, and interactive learning.

Frost, L., and Bondy, A. (2002). The Picture Exchange Communication System: Training Manual (2nd ed.). Newark, DE: Pyramid Educational Products.

Huang, A., Wheeler, J. (2007). Promoting the development of educational programs for children with autism in southeast Asian Countries. International Journal of Special Education, 22(3), 78-88.

QuickRoberts Publishing. (2003-2009). Use Visual Strategies. Retrieved from http://www.usevisualstrategies.com/Welcome.aspx

Quill, K. A. (1997). Instructional considerations for young children with autism: the rationale for visually cued instruction. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 27, 697-714.

Sussman, F. (1999). More Than Words: Helping Parents Promote Communication and Social Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Toronto, Canada: The Hanen Centre.

Sweeney, J. (2004). Brain-Based Learning and Assistive Technology. Canton, CT: Onion Mountain Technology, Inc.

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Division TEACCH. (2006). About us. Retrieved from http://www.teacch.com/mission.html

Thiemann, K., and Goldstein, H. (2000). Effects of visually mediated intervention on the social communication of children with pervasive developmental disorders. Final report. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University, Regional Rehabilitation Center.

Thiemann, K., and Goldstein, H. (2001). Social stories, written text cues, and video feedback: effects on social communication of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 425-446. 

 

Motivation
Research reveals that children learn more when they are motivated by an activity. Researchers have also discovered that motivation affects a large area of functioning for children who have autism. An increase in motivation should have extensive effects on other behaviors including learning, language, and communication. Imagine Speech provides fun and motivating games that children will want to play over and over again, learning the entire time.

Lovass Institute. (2005-2009). The Lovaas Approach. Retrieved from http://www.lovaas.com/approach-method.php

Sussman, F. (1999). More Than Words: Helping Parents Promote Communication and Social Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Toronto, Canada: The Hanen Centre.

University of California, San Diego. (2008). Pivotal Response Training. Retrieved from http://psy3.ucsd.edu~autism/prttraining.html

Young, J., Krantz, P., McClannahan, L., and Poulson, C. (1994). Generalized imitation and response-class formation in children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 685-698.

 

Positive Reinforcement and Positive Feedback and Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
Research demonstrates that positive reinforcement increases the frequency of targeted behaviors. Imagine Speech only uses positive visual and verbal reinforcement. Prompting and hierarchical cueing give positive feedback and help everyone achieve success in all Imagine Speech games.

Bopp, K. D., Brown, K. E., Mirenda, P. (2004). Speech-language pathologists' roles in the delivery of positive behavior support for individuals with developmental disabilities. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 13(1), 5-19.

Lovass Institute. (2005-2009). The Lovaas Approach. Retrieved from http://www.lovaas.com/approach-method.php

Sulzer-Azaroff, B. and Mayer, R. (1991). Behavior analysis for lasting change. Fort Worth, TX.: Holt, Reinhart and Winston. Inc.

 

Structured Learning Activities and ABA
Research confirms that children with speech and language disorders learn effectively and efficiently when given structured activities that include training, numerous targeted stimuli, prompts, and verbal and tangible reinforcements. In addition, evidenced based treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders include breaking skills into small parts and teaching one subskill at a time. Imagine Speech games flow like a typical speech-language therapy session and include initial training activities with models, numerous practice items for targeted stimuli, a cue hierarchy, verbal praise, and visual reinforcement. Imagine Speech games provide options to allow children to learn skills in isolation or practiced together to increase transferring and generalization of skills.

Dempsey, I., and Foreman P. (2001). A review of educational approaches for individuals with autism. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 48, 103-116.

Friedman, P., and Friedman, K. (1980). Accounting for individual differences when comparing the effectiveness of remedial language teaching methods. Applied Psycholinguistics, 1, 151-171.

Goldstein, H. (2002). Communication intervention for children with autism. A review of treatment efficacy. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(5), 373-396.

Harris, S., and and Delmolino, L. (2002). Applied behavior analysis: Its application in the treatment of autism and related disorders in young children. Infants and Young Children, 14(3), 11-17.

Krantz, P,. and McClannahan, L. (1981). Teaching complex language to autistic children. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 1, 259-297.

Lovaas, O., Schreibman, L., Koegel, R. (1974). A behaviour modification approach to the treatment of young children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 4, 111-129.

Ospina, M., Seida, J., Clark, B., Karkhaneh, M., Hartling, L., Tiosvold, L., Vandermeer, B., and Smith, V. Behavioural and Developmental Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Clinical Systematic Review. PloS ONE 2008; 3(11) e3755. Published online 2008 November 18. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003755.PMCID:PMC2582449.

Sulzer-Azaroff, B. and Mayer, R. (1991). Behavior analysis for lasting change. Fort Worth, TX.: Holt, Reinhart and Winston. Inc.

 

Expansions
Evidence from research demonstrates that expanding child utterances into grammatically correct forms increases the probability that children will increase mean length of utterance (MLU). Imagine Speech games expand single word and short phrase answers into complete sentences as positive reinforcement.

Paul, R. (2001). Language Disorders from Infancy through Adolescence: Assessment and Intervention (pp. 66-87). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby.

Scherer, N., and Olswang, L. (1984). Role of mothers' expansions in stimulating children's language production. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 27, 387-396.

 

Word Stress and Prosody
Research shows that children with language impairments benefit from stress on key words and produce new words more often when words are trained with increased stress rather than trained with neutral stress. Stress on key words highlights them and may provide an auditory cue and increase perceptual saliency to children. Imagine Speech games highlight key words by increasing stress on those words. For example, prepositions being practiced in Preposition Playhouse receive increased stress during training activities.

Barnes, S., Gutfreund, M., Satterly, D., and Wells, G. (1983). Characteristics of adult speech which predict children's language development. Journal of Child Language, 10, 57-65.

Paul, R. (2001). Language Disorders from Infancy through Adolescence: Assessment and Intervention (pp. 66-87). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby.

Weismer, S. (1988). The impact of emphatic stress on novel word learning by children with specific language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41, 1444-1458.


Imagine Speech games are designed to supplement speech-language therapy and integrate researched and evidenced based techniques. Imagine Speech is preparing to work with independent researchers to directly study the effects of these components within our products on the progress of children's speech-language development.

 

Bibliography:

Barnes, S., Gutfreund, M., Satterly, D., and Wells, G. (1983). Characteristics of adult speech which predict children's language development. Journal of Child Language, 10, 57-65.

Bopp, K. D., Brown, K. E., Mirenda, P. (2004). Speech-language pathologists' roles in the delivery of positive behavior support for individuals with developmental disabilities. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 13(1), 5-19.

Bosseler, A., Massaro, D. W. (2003). Development and evaluation of a computer-animated tutor for vocabulary and language learning in children with autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 33(6), 653-672.

Dempsey, I., and Foreman P. (2001). A review of educational approaches for individuals with autism. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 48, 103-116.

Friedman, P., and Friedman, K. (1980). Accounting for individual differences when comparing the effectiveness of remedial language teaching methods. Applied Psycholinguistics, 1, 151-171.

Frost, L., and Bondy, A. (2002). The Picture Exchange Communication System: Training Manual (2nd ed.). Newark, DE: Pyramid Educational Products.

Goldstein, H. (2002). Communication intervention for children with autism. A review of treatment efficacy. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(5), 373-396.

Gray, C. (1998). The new social story book. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons.

Harris, S., and and Delmolino, L. (2002). Applied behavior analysis: Its application in the treatment of autism and related disorders in young children. Infants and Young Children, 14(3), 11-17.

Huang, A., Wheeler, J. (2007). Promoting the development of educational programs for children with autism in southeast Asian Countries. International Journal of Special Education, 22(3), 78-88.

Koegel, L., K., Koegel, R., L., and Smith, A. (1997). Variables related to differences in standarized test outcomes for children with autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 27(3), 233-243.

Krantz, P,. and McClannahan, L. (1981). Teaching complex language to autistic children. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 1, 259-297.

Lovaas, O., Schreibman, L., Koegel, R. (1974). A behaviour modification approach to the treatment of young children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 4, 111-129.

Lovass Institute. (2005-2009). The Lovaas Approach. Retrieved from http://www.lovaas.com/approach-method.php

McReynolds, L. (1966). Operant conditioning for investigating speech sound discrimination in aphasic children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 9, 519-528.

Moore, M., and Calvert, S. (2000). Brief report: vocabulary acquisition for children with autism: teacher or computer instruction. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 30, 359-362.

Ospina, M., Seida, J., Clark, B., Karkhaneh, M., Hartling, L., Tiosvold, L., Vandermeer, B., and Smith, V. Behavioural and Developmental Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Clinical Systematic Review. PloS ONE 2008; 3(11) e3755. Published online 2008 November 18. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003755.PMCID:PMC2582449.

Paul, R. (2001). Language Disorders from Infancy through Adolescence: Assessment and Intervention (pp. 66-87). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby.

QuickRoberts Publishing. (2003-2009). Use Visual Strategies. Retrieved from http://www.usevisualstrategies.com/Welcome.aspx

Quill, K. A. (1997). Instructional considerations for young children with autism: the rationale for visually cued instruction. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 27, 697-714.

Segers, E., Nooijen, M., and de Moor, J. (2006). Computer vocabulary training in kindergarten children with special needs. International Journal of Rehabilitiaton Research, 29(4), 343-345.

Scherer, N., and Olswang, L. (1984). Role of mothers' expansions in stimulating children's language production. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 27, 387-396. 

Silver, M., and Oakes, P. (2001). Evaluation of a new computer intervention to teach people with autism or Asperger syndrome to recoginize and predict emotions in others. Autism, 5(3), 299-316.

Sulzer-Azaroff, B. and Mayer, R. (1991). Behavior analysis for lasting change. Fort Worth, TX.: Holt, Reinhart and Winston. Inc.

Sussman, F. (1999). More Than Words: Helping Parents Promote Communication and Social Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Toronto, Canada: The Hanen Centre.

Sweeney, J. (2004). Brain-Based Learning and Assistive Technology. Canton, CT: Onion Mountain Technology, Inc.

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Division TEACCH. (2006). About us. Retrieved from http://www.teacch.com/mission.html

Thiemann, K., and Goldstein, H. (2000). Effects of visually mediated intervention on the social communication of children with pervasive developmental disorders. Final report. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University, Regional Rehabilitation Center.

Thiemann, K., and Goldstein, H. (2001). Social stories, written text cues, and video feedback: effects on social communication of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 425-446.

University of California, San Diego. (2008). Pivotal Resp-nse Training. Retrieved from http://psy3.ucsd.edu~autism/prttraining.html

Weismer, S. (1988). The impact of emphatic stress on novel word learning by children with specific language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41, 1444-1458.

Williams, C., Wright, B., and Callaghan, G. (2002). Do children with autism learn to read more readily by computer assisted instruction or traditional book methods? A pilot study. Autism, 6(1), 71-91.

Young, J., Krantz, P., McClannahan, L., and Poulson, C. (1994). Generalized imitation and response-class formation in children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 685-698.